s part of the project, a robotic manufacturing platform was developed for the automated assembly and milling of the pavilion’s 376 bespoke hollow wood segments. This fabrication process ensures that all segments fit together and is complete with EPDM waterproofing. The stunning wooden roof spans 30m over one of BUGA’s main event and concert venues, using a minimum amount of material while also generating a unique architectural space.
Biomimetic lightweight construction:
Segmented wood shells
The BUGA Wood Pavilion provides an architectural marvel at the central summer island of the Bundesgartenschau 2019 in Heilbronn, Germany. The design of the pavilion is based on morphological principles of the plate skeleton of sea urchins. Following the precursor research, the BUGA Wood Pavilion is pushing the design and structural performance of biomimetic segmented wood shells onto a new level – with the same small amount of wood per square meter as in the LAGA project, is it possible to build a shell that reaches triple the span? And can this structure remain fully reusable, so that it can be deployed on a different site after the BUGA without any loss of performance?
To achieve this goal, the pavilion builds on the biomimetic principle of using ‘less material’ by having ‘more form’, both on the level of the overall shell and its individual segments. In order to minimise material consumption and weight, each wood segment is built up from two thin plates that plank a ring of edge-beams on top and bottom, forming large-scale hollow wooden cases with polygonal forms. The bottom plate includes a large opening, which constitutes a distinctive architectural feature and provides access to the hidden connections during assembly. The lightweight building elements are connected by finger joints, which follow the morphological principles of anatomic features found on the edge of sea urchins’ plates. In the assembled state, the shell works as a form-active structure through its expressive doubly-curved geometry.
Integrative (co) design:
Feedback-driven design, engineering and fabrication development
New ways of building require new ways of designing and manufacturing. The BUGA Wood Pavilion was conceived under the paradigm of co-design, where novel possibilities in design, engineering and fabrication are explored through continuous computational feedback within an interdisciplinary team. In this project, the co-design algorithms developed by the project team generate the shape of each element of the pavilion according to architectural design intent and structural requirements, while all robotic fabrication aspects are directly embedded and negotiated. The design of the pavilion happens concurrently and in feedback with the design of the robotic manufacturing set-up, which is a bespoke development for the project.
The highly integrative process enables the design and engineering of 376 unique plate segments with 17,000 different finger joints in response to multifaceted design criteria, from the scale of the overall structure down to sub-millimetre details. Without any loss of precision, this multi-scale approach allows addressing architectural and structural considerations concurrently. Despite the pioneering character of the project, and despite an incredibly short development time of only 13 months from commission to the opening, the integrative computational process allows for the careful design of each building element in minute detail.
Combining automated assembly with high-precision machining
Compared to a solid wood plate, as for example, used in the team’s LAGA Exhibition Hall, the hollow building segments significantly reduce weight and material, but they increase the number of building parts eightfold and lead to more complex manufacturing. Thus, striving for higher resource efficiency needs to go hand-in-hand with automated robotic manufacturing of the shell segments. For this, a novel, transportable, 14-axes robotic timber-manufacturing platform was developed by ICD University of Stuttgart and BEC GmbH, and located at the industrial partner MuellerBlaustein Holzbauwerke GmbH for production. The platform includes two high-payload industrial robots mounted on a 20ft standard container base. The flexibility of industrial robots allows the integration of all pre-fabrication steps of the pavilion’s segments within one compact manufacturing unit.
Everything happens in a fully automated workflow, controlled by two million custom lines of robotic code that were directly exported from the computational design framework. On average, the assembly time per segment is eight minutes, with the high precision-milling taking another 20 to 40 minutes.
A novel structure made watertight by EPDM
The pre-fabricated shell segments were assembled in only 10 working days by a team of two craftsmen. After connecting all segments with removable bolts, a layer of HERTALAN Easy Cover EPDM was rolled over the pavilion. Eight sheets of 1.5mm-thick HERTALAN EPDM membranes loose laid on the support shell and the edges and seams were glued, thereby ensuring watertightness to provide complete waterproofing.
EPDM was the perfect choice due to its flexibility, ease of installation and advantage of its adhesion to most substrates including:
- Untreated larch facade plates provide the external cladding of the pavilion. All building elements are designed for disassembly and reuse on a different site.
- The pavilion’s load-bearing wood shell achieves a column-free span of 30m, but weighs only 38kg/m². This is less than the LAGA exhibition hall benchmark, despite a threefold increase in span and a fivefold increase in size. Drawing a line from traditional carpentry to high-tech robotic fabrication methods, the BUGA Wood Pavilion showcases the possibilities for efficient, economical, ecological and expressive wood architecture that arises at the intersection of master craft, digital innovation and scientific research.
- The BUGA Wood Pavilion is located on the Summer Island of the Bundesgartenschau 2019. It was opened on 17th of April 2019